Canine Lymphoma

The Four Most Common Types of Canine Lymphoma

1. Multicentric Lymphoma

Multicentric lymphoma is by far the most common type of canine lymphoma. Approximately 80 to 85 percent of lymphomas in dogs are multicentric. This type of cancer affects the lymph nodes. In the majority of cases, the most apparent clinical manifestation is the rapid enlargement of the lymph nodes.

Most dogs suffering from Multicentric lymphoma do not show any distinctive signs of illness. Effected dogs may have little or no desire to eat, weight loss, accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, difficulty in breathing, unusual thirst, excessive urinating, fever, anemia, hemorrhage, and sepsis (inflammation of the whole body).

2. Alimentary Lymphoma

Alimentary lymphoma targets a dog’s intestines. It is the second most common form of the disease, accounting for less than 10 percent of canine lymphomas. While it occurs over a wide range of ages and breeds, males have a higher occurrence, compared to females.

Symptoms of Alimentary lymphoma include vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, loss of appetite, inactivity, and impaired absorption of nutrients from food.

3. Mediastinal Lymphoma

Mediastinal lymphoma is rare. It targets either or both the thymus and the mediastinal lymph nodes in the area of the chest enlarging either or both organs as a result of uncontrolled, rapid growth of high-grade malignant T lymphocytes.

Symptoms include trouble breathing as fluid builds up in the chest and puts pressure on the lungs. The tumor may block the vein that routes blood from the upper part of the body into the heart. In addition to signs related to breathing, some dogs with mediastinal lymphoma pass large amounts of urine and drink more than usual.

4. Extranodal Lymphoma

Extranodal lymphoma in dogs targets a specific organ, such as the skin, eyes, kidneys, lungs, or central nervous system. The most common form of extranodal lymphoma affects the skin and is called cutaneous lymphoma.
Symptoms of Extranodal Lymphoma vary depending on which organ is affected. Skin lymphoma may appear as single, raised, slow-healing sores or widespread, scaly regions. Signs of lymphoma at other extranodal sites include difficulty breathing (lungs), kidney failure (kidneys), blindness (eyes), seizures (central nervous system), and bone fractures and pain (bone).